Head lice have nothing to do with hygiene. Anyone can get head lice, although they are more common in children. Head lice spread mainly through head-to-head contact or potentially also through the sharing of personal belongings (scarf, cycling helmet, etc.). Young children tend to have closer contact. That is why head lice are commonly spread at primary school. At any one time, most schools will have a few children with active living head lice. Head lice do not discriminate between short or long, or clean or dirty hair.